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268.
\marginnote{To read more about other variants of Ubuntu, refer to \chaplink{ch:learning-more}.} In Linux distributions (such as Ubuntu), there are a number of desktop environments available. Ubuntu uses \application{Unity} as the default desktop environment. After installing and logging in to Ubuntu, you will see the \application{Unity} desktop. This initial view is comprised of the \seclink{sec:desktop-background} and two \emph{bars}\dash one is horizontally located at the top of your desktop and appropriately named \seclink{sec:top-bar}, and the other bar is vertically oriented at the far left, called \menu{the Launcher}.
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Located in ./ubuntu-desktop/ubuntu-desktop.tex :31
271.
Below the top bar is an image that covers the entire desktop. This is the default desktop background, or wallpaper, belonging to the default Ubuntu 12.10 theme known as \emph{Ambiance.} To learn more about customizing your desktop (including changing your background), see the section on \seclink{sec:customizing-desktop} below.
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Located in ./ubuntu-desktop/ubuntu-desktop.tex :35
273.
desktop!top bar
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Located in ./ubuntu-desktop/ubuntu-desktop.tex :56
274.
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Located in ./ubuntu-desktop/ubuntu-desktop.tex :56
275.
\screenshot{02-indicators.png}{ss:indicators}{The Indicators of the top bar.} Every application has a menu (like \menu{File}, \menu{Edit}, \menu{View}, etc.). In \application{Unity}, the \emph{application menu} isn't on the titlebar of the application as is commonly the case with other \acronym{GUI} environments. Instead, it is located on the left area of the top bar. To show an application's menu, just move your mouse to the top bar. This capability of \application{Unity} to only show the application's menu when needed is especially beneficial for netbook and laptop users as it provides you with more free work space. \marginnote{Note that some older applications may still display their menu within the application window.}
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Located in ./ubuntu-desktop/ubuntu-desktop.tex :60
277.
\screenshot{02-Launcher.png}{ss:Launcher}{The Ubuntu 12.04 Launcher Panel on the left with a sample of applications on it.} \index{Launcher} The vertical bar of icons on the left side of the screen is called the Launcher. The Launcher provides easy access to applications, mounted devices, and the \menu{Trash}. All running applications on your system will place an icon in this Launcher while the application is running. The first icon at the top of the Launcher is the Dash, a major innovation and core element of \application{Unity} \dash we will explore the Dash in a later section of this chapter. By default, other applications appear on the Launcher, including applications such as \application{LibreOffice} and \application{Firefox}, the \menu{Workspace} lens, any mounted devices, and, of course, the always-important \menu{Trash} lens at the bottom of the Launcher. \marginnote{\menu{Workspaces} helps you to select the workspace or the window you want. \menu{Trash} contains deleted files.} \marginnote{Tip: Pressing \keystroke{Super+S} will show the \application{Workspaces}.}
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Located in ./ubuntu-desktop/ubuntu-desktop.tex :68
282.
\marginnote{If you hold the Super key, a number will appear on each of the first ten applications, along with a margin containing useful shortcuts. You can launch an application with a number $n$ on it by typing \keystroke{Super+$n$}.} To run an application from the Launcher (or cause an already-running application to appear), just click on the application's icon. Running applications will have one or more triangles on the left side of its icon, indicating the number of application windows open for this application. The application in the foreground (meaning on top of all other open application windows) has a white triangle on the right side of its icon. You can also run an application through the Dash. We will talk about the Dash, in the \seclink{sec:dash} section. \marginscreenshot{02-Launcher-triangles.png}{ss:Launcher-items}{Just below the Home Folder icon, you will see the Firefox icon. Notice the triangle on the right side indicating it is the application in the foreground (on top of all other applications), and the triangle on the left side indicating there's only one window associated with Firefox at this time.}
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Located in ./ubuntu-desktop/ubuntu-desktop.tex :77
287.
Run the application you want to add to the Launcher, right-click on the application's icon on the Launcher, and select \dropdown{Keep in the Launcher}.
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Located in ./ubuntu-desktop/ubuntu-desktop.tex :87
288.
To remove an application from the Launcher, right-click on the application's icon, then select \dropdown{Remove from the Launcher} or deselect \dropdown{Keep in the Launcher} \dash if the application is running.
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Located in ./ubuntu-desktop/ubuntu-desktop.tex :89
291.
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